imperial japanese navy pilots

The 11th Air Fleet: contained most of the Navy's land based strike aircraft. [31] Unlike in the United States Navy where carrier divisions served only in an administrative capacity, the carrier divisions of the Kido Butai were operational entities. [14] These were eventually combined into six air groups (kokutai) located at six bases around Japan. Sep 5, 2017 - Explore Miguel A Carlo's board "JAPANESE PILOTS & GEAR" on Pinterest. Afterwards they embarked on a conversion program of several excess battlecruisers and battleships into aircraft carriers. Yamato, the heaviest and most heavily armed battleship in history, was launched in 1941.The second half of World War II saw the last battleship duels. [14] In 1932, an independent Naval Air Arsenal was also established to streamline the testing and development of aircraft and weaponry. Despite the fierce rivalry between the military branches, in the fall of 1937 General Matsui Iwane, the Army general in command of the theater, admitted the superiority of the Naval Air Services. Uncommon WWII Japanese Navy Officer’s Black Cotton Fatigue / Swimming Cap In 1913, the following year, a Navy transport ship, Wakamiya Maru was converted into a seaplane carrier capable of carrying two assembled and two disassembled seaplanes. Type: New Print on high quality Photo Paper. They launched the world's first purpose-built aircraft carrier, Hōshō, in 1922. There were usually four sections in each hikotai, each section (小隊, shōtai) with three or four aircraft; by mid-1944 it was common for a shotai to have four aircraft. Manufacturer Mitsubishi derived much from these campaigns, producing one of the best fighters of the war, the A6M Zero - sen. Navy pilots proved to be highly skilled when engaged by the Allied Forces in the Pacific. [17] This was in keeping with the strategy of providing a rapid defense of the home islands against the possible westward advance of an American naval offensive across the Pacific. Th… The mission arrived at Kasumigaura Naval Air Station the following month, in November 1921, and stayed in Japan for 18 months. The first unit was established at Yokosuka in April 1916, however, the lack of a specific naval air policy in these early years was made apparent by the fact that the Yokosuka Air Group operated with the fleet only once a year when it was transported briefly to whatever training area the IJN was then using for maneuvers. The Navy Air Service consisted of five naval air fleets. Furthermore, the Circle naval expansion programs featured an additional 12 air groups, they also included the development of specific aviation technologies and the acceleration of air crew training. Lieutenant Toru Shinomiya captain, corporal Masao Itagaki, Sergeant Takeo Yoshida, Tadashi Abe corporal from the left. [22] After gaining intelligence that the Chinese were planning to mount a counteroffensive, the Japanese bombers carried out attacks Chinese airfields at Hangzhou and Suzhou between 23 and 26 February, destroying a number of aircraft on the ground. “In the ocean of the military, reflective of all distinguished pilots, an honored Buddhist person." histoire des as de l'aviation de 1914 à nos jours. It is an ongoing list and will be re-posted every time it is up…. The following year, a naval air station for both land and sea aircraft was established, and subsequently, naval air training was transferred to Kasumigaura, from Yokosuka. The war in the Pacific was not a duel, but the engagement of a multitude of nations, a huge variety of theaters of operations, ranging from the deserts of China through the jungle of Borneo and icy mountains of the Aleutians. After the establishment of a naval air training unit at Kasumigaura, the air station became the principal flight training center for the navy. Colorizations By Users - Japanese Fighter pilots. They were to operate out of six new air stations at Ōminato, Saeki, Yokohama, Maizuru, Kanoya, and Kisarazu in the home islands and Chinhae on the southern coast of Korea. [14] With these two carriers much of Imperial Japanese Navy's doctrines and operating procedures were established. The military objective, where it exists, seems to take a completely second place. Zero pilots had extensive combat experience gained in Japan's unprovoked and brutal war against China. Explore CAL~LOOK's photos on Flickr. The Japanese, together with a token British force, blockaded then laid siege to the German colony of Kiaochow and its administrative capital Tsingtao on the Shandong peninsula. The deadline for completion date of the aviation of the Circle One expansion moved up to 1937 and an all-out effort was also made to complete the aircraft production of the Circle Two program by the end of the same year. The Japanese had a total of ten aircraft carriers: six fleet carriers, three smaller carriers, and one training carrier. [20], The actions of the Japanese aviators over Shanghai represented the first significant air operations over East Asia and for the IJN, it also marked the first combat operations from its aircraft carriers. [23], From the onset of hostilities in 1937 until forces were diverted to combat for the Pacific war in 1941, naval aircraft played a key role in military operations on the Chinese mainland. It built the world’s first purpose-built aircraft carrier the HIJMS Hōshō in 1922. The carrier-based Kōkūtai numbered over 1,500 pilots and just as many aircraft at the beginning of the Pacific War. [15] Aircraft were to act as scouts and spotters, layers of smoke screens for naval gunfire, fleet air defense, and later (with the increase in aircraft performance) as a means to attack battleships and other surface targets. Assignment of naval air group numbers (海軍航空隊番号附与標準, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 07:14. In 1920, a representative had also been sent to Britain to observe air operations off the decks of Furious. The 7,470-ton Hōshō was laid down in December 1919 at Yokohama. Aircraft with armor and self-sealing fuel tanks, such as the Kawanishi N1K-J would not enter service until late 1944–1945, which was too late to have a meaningful impact. [8] In 1920, a representative had also been sent to Britain to observe air operations off the decks of Furious. On the morning of 4 June 1942, Lieutenant Commander C. Wade McClusky led thirty Dauntless SBD dive-bombers from the carrier USS Enterprise in an attack that destroyed the Japanese fleet carriers Akagi and Kaga. Japanese aircraft were at least the equals of anything then flying in the West, and in some cases (as with the legendary Zero fighter) were substantially better. Lieutenant Toru Shinomiya captain, corporal Masao Itagaki, Sergeant Takeo Yoshida, Tadashi Abe corporal from the left. [3] The aircraft was eventually mass-produced and became the mainstay of the navy's air arm until the mid-1920s. In 1917, officers at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal designed and built the first Japanese seaplane, the Ro-Go Ko-gata reconnaissance seaplane, which was much more useful at sea and much safer than the Maurice Farman aircraft that the navy had been using up to that point. Flight tests showed that they lost maneuverability at high speeds. [25] The China War was of great importance and value to the Japanese naval aviation in demonstrating how aircraft could contribute to the projection of naval power ashore.[26]. Yamamoto is shown in his dress whites addressing Imperial Japanese Navy pilots on Rabaul Island on the morning he was killed. How American Pilots Used "Skip Bombing" to Take out Imperial Japanese Shi. [19] On 3 February, a number of the aircraft from the two carriers were deployed to Kunda Airfield, where they flew missions in support of Japanese ground forces. Sakamaki is quite famous, though, I doubt you’ve ever heard of him. Japanese factories by the end of the war, in increasing numbers, were beginning to turn out engines and fuselages based on foreign designs. This is a nice reproduction of an photograph Size is about 4" x 6" (10x15cm). [9] There were reservations on the part of the Admiralty, about granting the Japanese unrestricted access to British technology, despite this the British government sent an unofficial civil aviation mission to Japan. Army Major John W. Mitchell, the commander of the 339th Fighter Squadron, was tasked with preparing a detailed plan of attack. His espionage work helped Japan rapidly develop its military aircraft and its technologies before the Second World War. Land based aircraft provided the bulk of Japan's naval aviation up to the eve of World War II.[37]. [2] After their return to Japan at the end of 1912, two of the newly trained naval aviators made the first flights at Oppama on Yokosuka Bay, one in a Curtiss seaplane, the other in a Maurice Farman.[3]. Examination of crashed or captured Japanese aircraft revealed that they achieved their superior range and maneuverability by doing without cockpit armor and self-sealing fuel tanks. Browse the best of eBay, connect with other collectors, and explore the history behind your favorite finds. Japanese fighter planes, notably the Mitsubishi Zero, gained tactical air superiority; control of the skies over China belonged to the Japanese. November 7, 1944, 244th squadron. Japan continued to attribute considerable prestige to battleships (戦艦 Senkan) and endeavoured to build the largest and most powerful ships of the period. Japanese navy aviators, like their army counterparts, preferred maneuverable aircraft, leading to lightly built but extraordinarily agile types, most famously the A6M Zero, which achieved its feats by sacrificing armor and self-sealing fuel tanks. One important advantage exercised by the Japanese at the start of the war was their ability to mass carrier air power. American pilots were trained to take advantage of these weaknesses. [16] Around 1932–33, the IJN began to shift its aerial focus from targeting from the enemy's battleships to their aircraft carriers; and by mid-30s, with the improved performance of bombing aircraft particularly dive-bombers, the destruction of the enemy's carrier force became the primary focus of Japan's carrier forces. CAL~LOOK has uploaded 951 photos to Flickr. WWII Japanese Army Hemet with Kanji Annotations $ 750.00. I didn’t find a caption for it but it looks like it was taken during his China days, most likely at Hankow Airfield. [16] Although, this total 895 aircraft was considerably less than total American naval air strength for the same period, Japan's land based aviation force was substantially larger. ... after numerous aerial strikes against the advancing Imperial Japanese Navy, … In the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, and again in the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Japanese lost many veteran pilots. None of the Japanese pilots involved in the attack on Pearl Harbor had logged less than 600 hours of flying time, and many flight leaders had over 1500 hours’ experience. $350.00 0 bids + $100.00 shipping . Each naval air fleet contained one or more naval air flotillas (commanded by Rear Admirals) each with two or more naval air groups. [21] On 22 February, while escorting three B1M3 torpedo bombers, three fighters from Kaga operating from Kunda Airfield scored the IJN's first aerial victory when they shot down a Boeing 218 fighter, flown by an American volunteer pilot Robert Short. [8] Hōshō was the second warship after the British Hermes to be designed from the keel up as an aircraft carrier and the first one to be completed as from the keel up.[8]. [24] Aircrews of Kaga received a special commendation from the commander of the Third Fleet, Vice Admiral Kichisaburō Nomura, for their actions. [16], In addition to developing carrier-based aviation, the IJN maintained many land based air groups. [15] But with the continued increase in the range and power of aircraft, carriers became acknowledged for their ability to strike at targets beyond the range of surface guns and torpedoes. During their early years, these organizations were under the command of able air enthusiasts, who played major role in the rapid expansion of Japanese naval aviation during the following decade. At the start of the war, three carrier divisions made up the Kido Butai. Item Number: 45665. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEvanPeattie1997 (, Organization of the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service, Military History of Japan during World War II, List of Japanese Navy Air Force aces (Mitsubishi A6M), List of radar models of the Imperial Japanese Navy, List of bombs used by the Imperial Japanese Navy, List of weapons on Japanese combat aircraft, List of Aircraft engines in use of Japanese Navy Air Force, Japanese marine paratroopers of World War II, "The Highland peer who prepared Japan for war", "British aviation pioneer was a spy for Japan", https://web.archive.org/web/20091027182301/http://uk.geocities.com/sadakichi09/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Imperial_Japanese_Navy_Air_Service&oldid=999051287, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty two incomplete capital ships were allowed to be rebuilt as carriers, for the Japanese; Akagi and Amagi. [16] The Circle One naval expansion program which had been formulated in 1927 and put into effect in 1931, called for the creation of 28 new air groups. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Imperial Japanese Navy Pilots flying goggles. As a consequence, it was important to the Japanese that naval aircraft be able to "outrange the enemy" in the air, just as Japanese surface forces could do by naval gunnery and torpedo attacks. After he had made his own attack, and despite the sky over the Japanese carrier fleet now swarming with Zero fighters whose angry pilots were desperate … [16], By the end of 1937, the navy possessed 563 land-based aircraft, in addition to the 332 aircraft aboard its carrier fleet. Biographies, unités, décos, victoires, exploits, photos, The following lists the uniforms of every country that participated in World War II. Kaga arrived off the entrance of the Yangtze River on 1 February, and was joined by Hōshō two days later. [4] On 5 September, during the first successful operation, two Farman seaplanes dropped several bombs on the Bismarck battery, the main German fortifications in Tsingtao. So translates the name awarded to Japanese pilot, hjmarseille: “ A signed photo of Saburō Sakai. [19] There were heavy civilian casualties and property loses, partly as a result of crude bombing techniques and mechanisms at the time. The Japanese admirals, whose own Navy had been modeled on the Royal Navy and whom they admired, themselves proposed their own Naval Air Service. On 29 January, several aircraft from the seaplane tender Notoro, anchored in the Yangtze river, carried out low level attacks on Chinese military positions in Zhabei; on artillery positions outside the city and on an armored train at a railway station in the northern part of the city. Mitchell would personally lead the 18 P-38s that would participate in the mission. These planes eventually provided the inspiration for the design of a number of Japanese naval aircraft. The outdated Japanese aircraft and poorly trained pilots suffered great losses in any air combat for the rest of the war, particularly in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. [16] The creation of these air units had begun at the end of World War I, when plans had been drawn up for 17 of them, however these plans were not fully implemented until 1931. See more ideas about Wwii, Imperial japanese navy, World war two. WWII Imperial Japanese Naval Aviation Page. $0.01 1 bid + $12.00 shipping . On 10 December, Japanese naval land based bombers operating from bases in Indochina, were also responsible for the sinkings of HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse which was the first time that capital ships were sunk by aerial attack while underway. Each naval air group consisted of a base unit and 12 to 36 aircraft, plus four to 12 aircraft in reserve. The American aircraft industry rapidly increased production rates of new designs that rendered their Japanese opponents obsolescent. [N 2] By the end of the siege the aircraft had conducted 50 sorties and dropped 200 bombs, although damage to German defenses was light. The Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II, at the beginning of the Pacific War in December 1941, was the third most powerful navy in the world, and the naval air service was one of the most potent air forces in the world. The bombing of Nanjing and Guangzhou, which began on 22 and 23 September 1937, called forth widespread protests culminating in a resolution by the Far Eastern Advisory Committee of the League of Nations. The Japanese strategic bombing was mostly done against Chinese big cities, such as Shanghai, Wuhan and Chonging, with around 5,000 raids from February 1938 to August 1943. The Japanese had drawn up plans for the formation of 17 squadrons of these aircraft, but budgetary constraints limited the units to eleven until 1931. Unlike other naval airforces, the IJNAS was responsible for strategic bombing and operated long ranged bombers. [23] The attack on Zhabei was also the most destructive aerial attack on an urban area until the Condor Legion's attack on Guernica, five years later. However, the long duration of the training program, combined with a shortage of gasoline for training, did not allow the IJN to rapidly provide qualified replacements in sufficient numbers. 12Air group pilot.jpg 1,600 × 750; 365 KB On November 15, 1938, Matome Ugaki was promoted to Rear Admiral of the Imperial Navy of Japan. [21] Altogether, the Japanese had eighty aircraft that could be deployed over Shanghai, mostly Nakajima A1N2 fighters and Mitsubishi B1M3 torpedo bombers. Imperial Japanese Navy Pilots Kamikaze headband - IJN. Technicians become familiar with the newest aerial weapons and equipment-torpedoes, bombs, machine guns, cameras, and communications gear. Imperial Japanese Navy Petty Officer's Service Uniform This is the uniform of a senior petty officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy. In absolute numbers, land based aircraft provided the largest growth in Japaneses naval air power in the years before the Pacific War. WW2 Former Japanese army harness military dog horse bag bag side bag (M3922) See more ideas about imperial japanese navy, wwii, world war two. But the seaplanes, by transferring on to the shore, continued to be used against the German defenders until their surrender on 7 November 1914. [13], Japanese interest in the potential of carrier operations demonstrated by the observations on board Furious led to the inclusion of an aircraft carrier in the eight-eight fleet program of 1918. [27] Naval bombers such as the Mitsubishi G3M and Mitsubishi G4M were used to bomb Chinese cities. The Japanese navy had closely monitored the progress of aviation of the three Allied naval powers during World War I and concluded that Britain had made the greatest advances in naval aviation, they had also learned a good deal about naval aviation through their contacts within the Royal Navy. In 1912, the Royal Navy had also informally established its own flying branch, the Royal Naval Air Service. [33] In April 1942, the Indian Ocean raid drove the Royal Navy from South East Asia. [2] To establish a cadre of naval aviators and technicians, the navy also dispatched three officers to Hammondsport and two to France for training and instruction. Imperial Japanese Navy Zero Fighter Pilot (Special Edition) – This set is virtually identical to the international edition except that the head sculpt has facial hair. In the 1920s, the larger percentage of aircraft that were initially acquired and inducted into service, were land based seaplanes whose main tasks were reconnaissance and anti-submarine patrols. However, in 1928 the First Carrier Division was formed with three carriers and the study of the role of aircraft carriers in a naval engagement was initiated. Within a year, the Imperial Japanese navy had begun the operational use of aircraft. The beginnings of Japanese naval aviation were established in 1912, with the creation of a Commission on Naval Aeronautical Research (Kaigun Kokūjutsu Kenkyūkai) under the authority of the Technical Department. Flying the excellent Zero, Japanese fighterpilots were able to sweep opposing aircraft out of the skies of the southwest Pacific in the early months of the war. The organization was responsible for the operation of naval aircraft and the conduct of aerial warfare in the Pacific War. [10], The Sempill Mission led by Captain William Forbes-Sempill, a former officer in the Royal Air Force experienced in the design and testing of Royal Navy aircraft during the First World War. On 23 August 1914, as a result of its treaty with Great Britain, Japan declared war on Germany. [1] That year, the commission decided to purchase foreign winged aircraft and to send junior officers abroad to learn how to fly and maintain them. The Imperial Japanese Navy was a pioneer in naval aviation. Item Number: 45674. 0102kamikaze.jpg 1,179 × 1,830; 222 KB The substantial land-based air power worked to Japan's advantage when the nation went to war in 1937 with China. [14], In 1931, the air service pushed for and established the remainder of the 17 air squadrons that had been projected in the 1923 expansion plans. Each naval air group consisted of several Squadrons (飛行隊, Hikōtai) of nine, 12 or 16 aircraft; this was the main IJN Air Service combat unit and was equivalent to a squadron (中隊, Chutai) in the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service. During the siege, starting from September, four Maurice Farman seaplanes (two active and two reserve) on board Wakamiya conducted reconnaissance and aerial bombardments on German positions and ships. [9] Japanese naval aviation also, both in technology and in doctrine, continued to be dependent on the British model for most of the 1920s. The Circle One plan concentrated on developing new aircraft types, including large flying boats and land-based attack aircraft, as well as the building of seaborne units, both floatplanes and carrier aircraft. The two carriers in a division fought together, often exchanging aircraft squadrons and commanders on strikes. Early in World War II, Imperial Japanese Navy pilots went through a rigorous and at times brutal cadet program. .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, Words cannot express the feelings of profound horror with which the news of these raids had been received by the whole civilized world. [25] This was unique in naval history, as it was the first time that any naval air service had ever carried out such an effort. The Japanese Imperial Navy had ten front-line aircraft carriers. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service Pilots with a Nakajima J1N1 Gekkō ("Moonlight") twin-engine aircraft used for reconnaissance, as night fighter, and for kamikaze missions. In 1921, the Japanese government formally requested that the British dispatch a naval air mission, in order to de… The main object seems to be to inspire terror by the indiscriminate slaughter of civilians...»[28], At the beginning of the Pacific war the Imperial Japanese Navy possessed the most powerful carrier force in the world, through combination of excellent ships, well-designed aircraft, and unsurpassed aviators. Second from the left – the famous Satio Endo, - who shot down 8 and damaged 8 American Boeing B-29 Superfortress bombers; Circa 1943-44. His combat troops relied on the Navy for air support. At the begining of World War II, the Imperial Navy had created the finest naval aviation corps in the world. ... Navy and Marine Wildcat pilots learned to make slashing attacks from above leveraging their superior diving speed. The Japanese pilot training program was very selective and rigorous, producing a high-quality and long-serving pilot corps, who were very successful in the air during the early part of World War II in the Pacific. Selection criteria were so strict that no more than 100 pilot c… Moreover, Japan, unlike the U.S. or Britain, never altered its program to speed up the training process of its recruits. [16] The emerging concept of a mass aerial attack also shifted the emphasis away from the protection of the main battle fleet to attacks on targets over the horizon. Lt. Toru Shinomiya, leader of the 244th Shinten-Tai out of Chofu airfield flying Kawasaki Ki-61's. "Imperial Japanese Naval Aviator 1937-45" - Osprey (Warrior Series No.55) - Osamu Tagaya - 9781841763859 "Japanese Naval Aviation Uniforms and Equipment 1937-45" - Osprey (Elite Series No.86) - Gary Nila - 9781841764658 "Midway 1942" - Osprey (Campaign Series No.30) - Mark Healy - … ), Warrant Officer, or experienced Chief Petty Officer, while most pilots were non-commissioned officers. $75.00 0 bids + $50.00 shipping . Sep 3, 2016 - japanese navy ace Lt. Naoshi Kanno with other pilots of the 343 kokutai squadron, he destroyed 48 american planes most of then hellcats fighters Upon entering production the aircraft was given a Type number. Air arm of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. In 1921, the Japanese government formally requested that the British dispatch a naval air mission, in order to develop and to provide a professional edge to Japanese naval aviation. [3] Japanese naval aviation, though, continued to make progress. The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service (大日本帝國海軍航空隊, Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun Kōkū-tai) was the air arm of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service was equal in function to the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm (FAA). The IJNAS had over 3,089 aircraft in 1941 and 370 trainers. Although only 14 groups were actually established by 1934, which was a response to American naval expansion under the first Vinson plan, the Circle Two program called for eight additional air groups to be created by the end of 1937. [32] On 7 December 1941, the IJN's Kido Butai attacked Pearl Harbor, crippling the U.S Pacific Fleet by destroying over 188 aircraft at the cost of 29 aircraft. Although, the 1937–41 air offensives failed in its political and psychological aims, it did reduce the flow of strategic materiel to China and for a time, improved the Japanese military situation in the central and southern parts of the country. They were to be located at six air stations around the Japanese home islands: Yokosuka, Sasebo, Kasumigaura, Omura, Tateyama, and Kure, these units were composed of various types of aircraft, which were mostly seaplanes. The Circle Two plan continued the buildup in naval aircraft and authorized the construction of two aircraft carriers.[14]. Quality: This is NOT an inkjet or Laserjet print but one produced in a professional photographic lab. The named naval air groups were usually linked to a particular navy air command or a navy base. In the early 1930s, the Japanese created a new category of aircraft termed rikujo kogeki-ki (land based attack aircraft) or Rikko for short. While Kaga had 16 fighters and level/torpedo planes & GEAR '' on Pinterest its own flying branch, the Japanese... Two plan continued the buildup in naval aircraft decks of Furious European aircraft but quickly built their own launched. 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Its career as Navy experimental 12-Shi carrier Fighter '' the following 157 files are in category. Were still very much surface oriented naval bombers such as the Mitsubishi Zero, gained tactical superiority. In 1920, a representative had also informally established its own flying branch, the British Peer provided the of! On Germany the air station the following month, in addition to developing carrier-based aviation the... Strategic Bombing and operated long ranged bombers would participate in the World 's first purpose-built aircraft carrier building.... Ideas about Imperial Japanese Navy pilots flying goggles its recruits Hōshō, in November 1921, and in... Media in category `` People of the Imperial Japanese Navy pilots on Rabaul Island on the morning he killed! Carried out on the Navy 's doctrines and operating procedures were established G3M and Mitsubishi G4M were used to Chinese. Military aircraft and the conduct of aerial warfare in the World produced in a division fought,... Rate, those veterans could not be replaced on 30 September Wakamiya was damaged during the six! Has the distinction of being the first aircraft carrier force in the mission of national air defence, strike! The latest British aviation technology and training for the Navy air Service of!

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